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Verb Tenses

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Vamos trabalhar os tempos verbais da língua inglesa. Lembre-se de que não há possibilidade de se ter uma sentença sem verbo e sem sujeito, mesmo que inexistente.
Exemplo: There is one song that says it never rains in Southern California.
Lembre-se: não basta apenas saber a forma das estruturas gramaticais, mas o significado e ouso delas também.

Simple Present

É usado para:

  • expressar ações habituais, frequentemente (ou não) repetidas

Exemplos:

One of my sister's chores is to feed the cat. She feeds the cat every day.
Do you ever do your shopping here?
My father hardly ever goes to a soccer stadium.
I don't often travel by bus. How about you?
If you pay, the story rolls. If you don't, the story folds.
(Stephen King, best-selling author)
Do politicians mean what they say?

Frequency words: ever = always, never, often = frequently, seldom = rarely, hardly ever = almost never, sometimes, every day (month, year)

  • expressar presente histórico, muito usado em textos de jornal / revista

Exemplos da TIME Magazine - 7 de agosto, 2000:

The Concorde, an aviation icon, crashes as the pilots wage a desperate struggle
The White House plays a risky game at Camp David -. and loses. Yet peace hopes to stay alive.

· expressar ações futuras previstas em horário estabelecido

Exemplo:

A: What time does your bus leave?
B: It leaves at 9. There.s time for a cup of coffee.

  • expressar verdades universais.

Exemplos:

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
Bees make honey.
Chickens lay eggs.
Ice melts if left in the sun.

  • deve ser usado também em .clauses. com if, when, as soon as, before, after (a forma será presente, mas o sentido será futuro.)

Exemplos:

I'll give the director your message as soon as he arrives.
I know Justin can do it. If he tries hard, he will succeed.

Present Progressive (Continuous)

É usado para expressar uma ação momentânea. Para formá-lo, use o presente do verbo to be + -ing do verbo principal.

Exemplos:

A: What are you doing here? Aren't you supposed to be at home now?
B: I am working on the financial report for tomorrow.s meeting.

Look! The flowers are dying.
Don't disturb your brother. He's studying for the History test.
If your little sister is sleeping, don't wake her up.

Também pode ser usado para expressar a ideia de que alguma coisa está sempre acontecendo.

Exemplo:

I avoid talking to my neighbor. She is always complaining about life.

Também pode ser usado para expressar ações futuras, devidamente planejadas.

Exemplo:

A: When are you leaving for Seoul, South Korea?
B: I'm leaving tonight.

Present Perfect Tense

Para formá-lo, use a forma presente de .have. como auxiliar (has, have) + o particípio passado do verbo principal (has written, have done, hasn.t eaten, haven.t checked)

Basicamente, este importante tempo verbal na língua inglesa descreve um fato passado com conexão com o presente. É geralmente associado aos seguintes advérbios: already, yet, just, ever, never, lately = recently, so far = up to now, many times, e às preposições since (marca o início da ação) e for (indica a duração da ação).

Exemplos:

I have already finished doing my Chemistry homework. I can now surf on the net.
Have you had dinner yet?
The (telephone) operator has not arrived yet. There.s no one to answer the phone.

I've never traveled by ship. It must be exciting!

A: Have you ever had an arm broken?
B: No, never. Thank God!

Have you seen the mayor lately?
I have not heard from my friends who are studying abroad recently.
Up to now I have replied three e-mail messages only.
Believe it or not, a friend of mine has seen "Ghost" five times.
I arrived at school at 7. It's 9 o'clock now. I have been here for two hours.
I have been here since 7 o'clock.

Quando se quer enfatizar a continuidade da ação, o Present Perfect Progressive (Continuous) é usado. Para formá-lo, você deve usar have (has) been + ing form do verbo principal.

Exemplos:

A: Your English is very good. How long have you been studying?
B: I've been studying English since I was 7 (years old).

I need to stand up and stretch a bit. I've been sitting for two hours.

Simple Past

O simple past é usado para indicar uma ação terminada, sem ligação com o presente, num tempo determinado. As mais frequentes expressões de tempo passado usadas são: yesterday, yesterday morning, the day before yesterday, two days ago, last night, last week, a week ago, in 1999, last summer, etc.

Quando se estuda o passado dos verbos em inglês, é necessário lembrar que há dois grupos de verbos: os regulares e os irregulares. Para formar o passado e o particípio passado dos verbos regulares, é preciso acrescentar .ed ao infinitivo.

Exemplos:

to finish - finished / to enrich - enriched / to like -. liked / to stop - stopped
to copy - copied / to relieve - relieved / to ignore - ignored / to stay - stayed

Os verbos irregulares têm formas próprias para o passado e particípio passado e há necessidade de prática para seu domínio. É importante lembrar também que essas formas, tanto do passado e particípio dos verbos regulares quanto irregulares nunca se alteram.

Alguns exemplos de verbos irregulares frequentemente usados:
to begin - began - begun (começar)
to break - broke -broken (quebrar)
to buy - bought - bought (comprar)
to catch - caught -caught (pegar, agarrar)
to come - came - come (vir)
to drink - drank - drunk (beber)
to eat - ate - eaten (comer)
to find - found - found (encontrar)
to go - went - gone (ir)
to know - knew - known (saber, conhecer)
to lose - lost - lost (perder)
to make - made - made (fazer)
to see - saw - seen (ver)
to sing - sang - sung (cantar)
to sleep - slept - slept (dormir)
to speak - spoke - spoken (falar)
to spend - spent - spent (gastar)
to understand - understood - understood (entender)
to write - wrote - written (escrever)

Exemplos:

The singers sang beautifully last night. What a performance!
I spoke to (with) Evelyn yesterday and gave her your message. I'm sure she'll get back to you as
soon as possible.
Did you see the lawyer last week?
Shakespeare wrote "Hamlet".(active voice) "Hamlet" was written by Shakespeare. (passive voice)
On Fathers' Day we had lunch out and ate grilled fish.
Six people were killed and dozens injured after protests against President Alberto Fujimori of Peru turned violent. (TIME . August 7, 2000)
I didn't understand what the teacher explained last class.

Past Progressive (Continuous)

Para formá-lo, use was (I, he, she, it), were (you, we, they) + a forma de ing do verbo principal (was doing, were sleeping).

O uso mais frequente do past continuous é descrever um fato que estava acontecendo quando um outro fato ocorreu.

Exemplos:

The phone was ringing when I came into the office.
I was having dinner out when I got the good news of my promotion.
The workers were digging the ground when the explosion happened.

Um outro uso frequente do past progressive é descrever duas ações que, simultaneamente, estavam ocorrendo.

Exemplo:

While my mom was fixing breakfast, I was making the beds.

Past Perfect

Para formá-lo, use had como verbo auxiliar + o particípio passado do verbo principal (had done, had gone, had been, etc...)
O uso mais comum do past perfect é descrever uma ação (passada) que ocorreu antes de outra ação, também passada.

Exemplos:

When I arrived home, my parents had already had (eaten) dinner.
After I had written the letter, I asked the supervisor to sign it.

Simple Future

Para formá-lo, use will (will + not = won.t) + o verbo principal.

Exemplos:

I'll call Al as soon as possible.
If you do that again, you'll be in trouble.
"I'll be right back with you," said the salesperson.
A: Alma won't come to the party.
B: What a shame!

Future Progressive (Continuous)

Para formá-lo, use will be + forma de ing do verbo principal (will be studying, will be working, etc...) Basicamente descreve uma ação que estará acontecendo num determinado ponto futuro.

Exemplos:

A: What will you be doing at 8 tonight?
B: I'll be having dinner.
I won't be at home tonight. I'll be rehearsing for the play.

Future Perfect

Para formá-lo, use will have + particípio passado do verbo principal (will have done, will have finished, will have written, etc....)

Expressa um fato que, hoje, ainda é futuro, mas que estará terminado num tempo determinado.

Exemplos:

Today is Monday. By Friday, I will have finished reading this book.
I am leaving school now. By the time I arrive home, my mother will have already cooked lunch.
Leonardo will graduate in December. I will see him in January. By the time I see him, he will have
graduated from college.


 

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